BOOKS:
A Child is Born –Nilsson/Hamberger
Advances in Touch-Brazelton
​After Baby’s Birth, by Robin Lim
Attending Birth-Marsden Wagner
Baby Massage –Amelia Auckett
Baby Massage –Heath/Bainbridge
Baby Massage –Peter Walker
Biology of Belief –Bruce Lipton
Birth Day –Lopez
Birth Without Violece –Leboyer
Birthing From Within –Pam England
Bonding-Brazelton
Born in the USA –Marsden Wagner
Calming Your Fussy Baby-Brazelton
Childbirth Wisdom –Judith Goldsmith
Complete Baby and Child Care –Miriam Stoppard
Complete Book of Essential Oils –Worwood
Craniosacral  Therapy for Babies-Peirsman
Crying Babies, Sleepless Nights, by Sandy Jones
​Earthbabies –Wendy McCord
Essential Exercises for  the Childbearing Year–Elizabeth Nobel
Gentle Birth, Gentle Mothering-Buckley
Have a Smarter Baby-Ludington
Hold Your Preemie-Dr. Nils Bergman
Homebirth –Shiela Kitzenger
How Will I Be Born –Jean Sutton
Hypnobirthing –Mongan
I Love You Rituals-Becky A. Bailey
Ina May’s Guide to Childbirth /Spiritual Midwifery–Ina May Gaskin
Infant Massage –Vimala McClure
Kangaroo Care-Ludington
Milk, Money, and Madness-M.D., Naomi Baumslag, Dia L. Michels
Mother Massage –Stillerman
​Natural Health After Birth-Romm
“No-Cry” Sleep Solution, and more –by Elizabeth Pantley
Painless Childbirth – Tornetta
Parenting Begins Before Conception –Carista Luminare-Rosen
Pelvic Power
Pre-parenting –Thomas R Verney
Pre-Perinatal Massage Therapy –Carole Osborne-Sheets
Promoting First Relationships Curriculum-NCAST
Pushed –Jennifer Block
Secrets of the Baby Whisperer –Tracey Hogg
Separation: Anxiety and Anger-Bowlby
The Attachment Parenting Book-Sears
The Aware Baby –Solter
The Baby Book-Sears/Sears
The Birth Partner –Simpkin
The Continuum Concept-Jean Liedloff
The Doula Book –Kennell/Klaus
The Doula Guide to Birth –Ananda Lowe
The Female Pelvis –Calais/Germain
The Mind of Your Newborn –Chamberlain
The Nature of Birth and Breastfeeding-Odent
The Oxytocin Factor
The Renaissance of Birth-Susan Highsmith
The Scientification of Love –Michele Odent
​The Secret Life of Babies-Kalef
The Secret Life of the Unborn Child- Thomas Verney
The Thinking Women’s Guide to a Better Birth –Henci Goer
Touch – Tiffany Field
Touching –Ashley Montague
​Touchpoints–Brazelton
Understanding Your Moods When Your Pregnant –Puryear
When Baby Brings the Blues
When Pregnancy Isn’t Perfect –Rich
Windows to the Womb-David Chamberlain
YOU Having a Baby –Dr. Oz
Your Amazing Newborn –Klaus

Books for Siblings

Hello Baby by Lizzy Rockwell
Oh Baby, The Places You’ll Go: A Book to be Read in Utero by Dr. Seuss
We Were Gonna Have a Baby, But We Had an Angel Instead by Pat
Schwiebert (baby loss
Welcome with Love by Jenni Overend
What Baby Needs by Dr. Sears


Videos/DVDs:

Babies!
Baby Cues: A Child’s First Language Set (DVD&Cards)
Between Humans and Horses –McCord
Birth (featuring 36 births)
Birth Story-Ina May and the Farm
Book: Qigong Massage for Your Child with Autism: A Home Program from Chinese Medicine [With DVD] -Paperback] Louisa Silva (Author), Anita Cignolini (Foreword)
Born in the USA
Business of Being Born
Comfort  Measures for Childbirth, The 3 R’s, Relaxation, Rhythm, and Ritual–Penny Simpkin
Discovering the Mind of the Prenate-Chamberlain
Dunstan Baby Language
I am Your Child –Rob Reiner Foundation
Injoy Birth Series and Anatomy Videos
It’s Baby Time
Laboring Under an Illusion –Elson
Natural Born Babies
Nature, Nurture and the Power of Love –Lipton
Orgasmic Birth
Origins of Love and Violence-Prescott
Pregnant in America
Promoting First Relationships, Social/Emotional Cards
The Birth Movie: your options in childbirth
The Face of Birth: where personal gets political
The Happiest Baby on the Block
The Secret Life of Babies-Bernard George
The Intelligence of Play-Brown/Pearce/and more
What Babies Want –Takikawa

Resources


Perinatal Research   Studies and Articles:

Antenatal psychosocial assessment for reducing perinatal mental health morbidity, Austin M-P, Priest SR, Sullivan EA Published Online: October 8, 2008

Aromatherapy for pain management in labour, Smith CA, Collins Published Online: August 10, 2011
       
Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour, Smith CA, Collins CT, Cyna AM, Crowther Published Online: September 8, 2010
        
Democracy of the Genes, Matt McGue 2000
        
Even in the Womb, Science News 2000-Christiansen (obesity-cortisol exposure)
       
Field T, Diego AM Hernandez-Reif M, et al. Massage therapy effects on depressed
pregnant women
. J Psychos Obstet Gynecol 2004:25:115-122.
    
Howard F. Pelvic Pain: Diagnosis and Management. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
        
In mice, mom’s gene’s favor brains over brawn -1998
  
Massage, reflexology and other manual methods for managing pain in labour, Smith CA,
Levett KM, Collins CT, Jones L Published Online: February 15, 2012
   
Pirie A and Herman H. How to Raise Children without Breaking Your Back. Cambridge,
MA: IBIS Publications,  2003
        
The Heritability of IQ, Devlin 1997 Nature (48%Genes 52% Environment)
       
The Pregnant Pelvis - An Introduction to Safe, Effective Prenatal Massage Therapy,
by Carole Osborne, Massage Magazine, Summer 1998 issue.
 
World Health Statistics 2011 - World Health Organization, Jan 14, 2011. There are major concerns with regard to raising the necessary, resources needed in all these areas. www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS2011_Full.pdf 

 

PARENTING SKILLS  AND TOUCH THERAPY


 

 Parenting Prevention of Substance and Other Abuse  -Bays, J. (1990)Substance abuse and child abuse–impact of addiction on the child. Pediatric Clinic of North America, 37, 881–904.  -Bennett, E.M. & Kemper K.J. (1994). Is abuse during childhood a risk factor for developing substance abuse problems as an adult? Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 15, 426–429. -Hans, S. (1995).Diagnosis in etiologic and epidemiologic studies. In C. Jones & M. De LaRosa (Eds.), Methodological issues: Etiology and consequences of drug abuse among women. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute on Drug Abuse(NIDA). -Hanson,R. F., Self-Brown, S., Fricker-Elhai, A. E., Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B.E., & Resnick, H. S. (2006). The relations between family environment and violence exposure among youth: Findings from the National Survey of Adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 11 (1), 3-15. -Hornberger, S. (2008). Children and families impacted by alcohol and drug dependency: What do we know and what are we learning. [PowerPoint slides]. Presented at Child Welfare Information Gateway, Fairfax, VA. -Kelleher, K.,Chaffin, M., Hollenberg, J. & Fischer, E. (1994). Alcohol and drug disorders among physically abusive and neglectful parents in a community-based sample. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 1586–1590. -National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. (2005). Family matters: Substance abuse and the American family. Retrieved from www.casacolumbia.org/Absolutenm/articlefiles/380-family_matters_report.pdf. 
-Tarter, R., Blackson, T., Martin, C., Loeber, R., & Moss, H. (1993). Characteristics and correlates of child discipline practicesin substance abuse and normal families. American Journal on Addictions, 2 (1),18–25.   -Wang C.T., Harding K. (1999). Current trends in child abuse reporting and fatalities: the results of the 1998 annual fifty state survey. Chicago: National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse. -U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Blending perspectives and building common ground: A report to Congress on substance abuse and child protection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from http://aspe.hhs.gov/HSP/subabuse99/subabuse.htm.

602-697-6463


Websites:

​​

http://www.breechbirth.ca/Welcome.html http://catalog.nucleusinc.com/generateexhibit.php?ID=16145&A=2 http://journals.sfu.ca/ijtmb/index.php/ijtmb http://www.pregnancy.about.com/cs/laborbirth/a/aa042300a.htm  http://whqlibdoc.who.int/whr/2005/9241562900.pdf http://www.atlc.org http://www.amtamassage.org http://www.babyfriendlyusa.org http://www.beba.org http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcpregnancychildbirth/ http://www.birthdiaries.com  Birth Story Diaries by Nurturing Hearts  http://www.birthpsychology.com/ http://www.cochrane.org/search/site/pregnancy%20perinatal http://www.dona.org/ http://www.heartmath.org http://www.ican-online.org/pregnancy/breech-presentation-fact-sheet http://www.icea.org  The International Childbirth Education Association  http://www.icpa4kids.com/about/webster_technique.htm http://www.gentlebirth.org/archives/breech.html http://knoxvilledoula.wordpress.com/2010/01/06/sexual-abuse-history-can-affect-your-pregnancy-labor/ http://www.medscape.com http://www.mothering.com  Great Articles http://www.mothersnaturally.org  More great articles supporting natural childbirth http://www.obgyn.com http://www.pennysimkin.com/products.htm  for the book The Birth Partner by Penny Simkin http://www.secretlifeofbabies.com/  Online Birth Recovery Program for Mothers and Their Babies http://www.playhappens.com http://www.spinningbabies.com/ http://www.thedoulaguide.com   for the book The Doula Guide to Birth by Ananda Lowe & Rachel Zimmerman http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/parenting/c-section-not-best-option-for-breech-birth/article597103/ http://www.helpguide.org/video/attachment_sd.htm http://www.ttfuture.org/services/bonding/main.htm http://www6.miami.edu/touch-research     

A 501c3 Non-Profit Corporation

Infant/Pediatric Massage, NICU and Touch Research:


INFANT MASSAGE RESEARCH:COCAINE  Wheeden, A., Scafidi, F.A., Field, T., Ironson, G., Valdeon, C. & Bandstra, E. (1993). Massage effects on cocaine-exposed preterm neonates. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 14, 318-322.   • Cocaine exposed preterm neonates were randomly assigned to a control group or massage therapy group. The massaged infants averaged 28% greater weight gain per day although the groups did not differ in intake, showed significantly fewer postnatal complications and stress behaviors than did control infants, and demonstrated more mature motor behaviors on the Brazelton examination at the end of the 10-day study period.  DEPRESSED   Field, T., Grizzle, N., Scafidi, F. Abrams, S., Richardson, S., Kuhn, C., & Schanberg, S. (1996). Massage therapy for infants of depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 107-112.   • The infants who experienced massage therapy compared to infants in the rocking control group spent more time in active alert and active awake states, cried less, and had lower cortisol levels, suggesting lower stress. Over the 6-week period, the massage-therapy infants gained more weight, showed greater improvement on emotionality, sociability, and soothability temperament dimensions, and had greater decreases in stress neurotransmitters/hormones (norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol).  FATHER   Cullen, C., Field, T., Escalona, A. & Hartshorn, K. (2000). Father-infant interactions are enhanced by massage therapy. Early Child evelopment and Care, 164, 41-47.  • Infants were given massages by their fathers for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for one month. By the end of the study, the fathers who massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor-play interactions with their infants.  
HABITUATION  Cigales, M., Field, T., Lundy, B., Cuadra, A., & Hart, S. (1997). Massage enhances recovery from habituation in normal infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 20, 29-34.    • Research shows that touch stimulation can positively affect physiological, behavioral, and social development among infants. However, empirical evidence of the effects of touch on infants’ cognitive performance is lacking. In this study, 56, 4-month-olds were given either 8 minutes of massage, play, or no stimulation prior to an audiovisual habituation task. Infants who received massage showed response recovery from habituation during test trials, whereas those in the other two conditions did not. 


OIL  Field, T., Schanberg, S., Davalos, M., & Malphurs, J. (1996). Massage with oil has more positive effects on normal infants. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 11, 75-80.  
• As compared with infants who received massage without oil, infants who received massage with oil were less active, showed fewer stress behaviors and head averting, and their saliva cortisol levels decreased more. Also, vagal activity increased following massage with oil versus massage without oil.  

PRETERM INFANTS  Scafidi, F.A., Field, T.M., Schanberg, S.M., Bauer, C.R., Tucci, K., Roberts, J., Morrow, C., & Kuhn, C.M. (1990). Massage stimulates growth in preterm infants: A replication. Infant Behavior and Development, 13, 167-188.  
• Forty preterm infants were assigned to treatment and control groups. The treatment infants averaged a 21% greater weight gain per day , were discharged 5 days earlier, and performed better on the habituation cluster items of the Brazelton scale. Treatment infants were also more active during the stimulation sessions than during the nonstimulation observation sessions (particularly during the tactile segments of the sessions).  Kuhn, C., Schanberg, S., Field, T., Symanski, R., Zimmerman, E., Scafidi, F., & Roberts, J. (1991). Tactile kinesthetic stimulation effects on sympathetic and adrenocortical function in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 119, 434-440.  
• Urine norepinephrine and epinephrine values increased significantly only in the stimulated babies. Furthermore, urine dopamine and cortisol values increased in both groups, and serum growth hormone decreased in both groups.  Scafidi, F., Field, T., Schanberg, S.M. (1993). Factors that predict which preterm infants benefit most from massage therapy. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 14, 176-180.  
• Preterm infants were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or control group. The massage therapy infants gained significantly more weight per day than the control infants. Seventy percent of the massage therapy infants were classified as high weight gainers whereas only forty percent of the control infants were classified as high weight gainers. The control infants who, before the study, consumed more calories and spent less time in intermediate care gained more weight. In contrast, for the massage group, the pattern of greater caloric intake and more days in Intermediate care before the study period along with more obstetric complications differentiated the high from the low weight gainers, suggesting that the infants who had experienced more complications before the study benefited more from the massage therapy.  Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Deeds, O., Figueiredo, B. & Ascencio, A. (2006). Moderate Versus Light Pressure Massage Therapy Leads to Greater Weight Gain in Preterm Infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 29, 574-578.   
• Sixty-eight preterm infants were randomly assigned to a moderate or to a light pressure massage therapy group to receive 15 massages three times per day for 5 days. Behavior state, stress behaviors and heart rate were recorded for 15min before and during the first 15-min therapy session. Weight gain was recorded over the 5-day therapy period. The moderate versus light pressure massage group gained significantly more weight per day. During the behavior observations the moderate versus light pressure massage group showed significantly lower increases from the pre-session to the session recording on: (1) active sleep; (2) fussing; (3) crying; (4) movement; and (5) stress behavior (hiccupping). They also showed a smaller decrease in deep sleep, a greater decrease in heart rate and a greater increase in vagal tone. Thus, the moderate pressure massage therapy group appeared to be more relaxed and less aroused than the light pressure massage group which may have contributed to the greater weight gain of the moderate pressure massage therapy group.  Diego, M. A., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Deeds, O., Ascencio, A., Begert, G. (2007). Preterm infant massage elicits consistent increases in vagal activity and gastric motility that are associated with greater weight gain. Acta Paediatrica, 96, 1588-1591.  • Massaged infants exhibited consistent short-term increases in vagal activity and gastric motility on both the first and the last days of the 5-day study that were associated with weight gain during the 5-day treatment period.  Hernandez-Reif, M., Diego, M. & Field, T. (2007). Preterm infants show reduced stress behaviors and activity after 5 days of massage therapy. Infant Behavior & Development, 30, 557-561.  
• The preterm infants in the massage therapy group received three 15-min massages each day for 5 consecutive days, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure stroking to the head, shoulders, back, arms and legs and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of the limbs. The preterm infants receiving massage therapy showed fewer stress behaviors and less activity from the first to the last day of the study.  Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Dieter, J., Kumar, A., Schanberg, S. & Kuhn, C. (2008). Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1) Increase in Preterm Infants Following Massage Therapy. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 463-466.  
• To determine if massage therapy increased serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in preterm neonates. Forty-two preterm neonates were randomly assigned to massage therapy (body stroking and passive limb movements for three, 15-minute periods per day for 5 days) or a standard treatment control group. On days 1 and 5, the serum collected by clinical heelsticks was also assayed for insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and weight gain and kilocalories consumed were recorded daily. Despite similar formula intake, the massaged preterm neonates showed greater increases during the 5 day period in: 1) weight gain; 2) serum levels of insulin; and 3) insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Increased weight gain was significantly correlated with insulin and IGF-1.  Diego, M. A., Field, T. & Hernandez-Reif, M. (2008). Temperature increases in preterm infants during massage therapy. Infant Behavior & Development, 31, 149-152.  • A greater increase in temperature was noted for preterm infants receiving massage therapy versus the control group; even though the incubator portholes remained open during the 15 min massage therapy session but not for the control group over an equivalent time period.  Diego, M. A., Field, T. & Hernandez-Reif, M. (2009). Procedural pain heart rate responses in massaged preterm infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 32, 226-229.  
• Heart rate (HR) responses to the removal of a monitoring lead were assessed in 56 preterm infants who received moderate pressure, light pressure or no massage therapy. The infants who received moderate pressure massage therapy exhibited lower increases in HR suggesting an attenuated pain response. The heart rate of infants who received moderate pressure massage also returned to baseline faster than the heart rate of the other two groups, suggesting a faster recovery rate  Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Dieter, J., Kumar, A., Schanberg, S. & Kuhn, C. (2008). Preterm infant  massage therapy research. Infant Behavior & Development, 33, 115-124.  
• In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of mothers as therapists was effective in at least one study. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units.   PRETERM NEONATES  Field, T., Schanberg, S. M., Scafidi, F., Bauer, C. R., Vega Lahr, N., Garcia, R., Nystrom, J., & Kuhn, C. M. (1986). Tactile/kinesthetic stimulation effects on preterm neonates. Pediatrics, 77, 654 658.  
• The stimulated neonates averaged a 47% weight gain, were more active and alert during sleep/ wake behavior observations, and showed more habituation, orientation, motor and range of state behavior. Their hospital stay was also 6 days shorter, saving the hospital approximately $3,000 per infant.  Scafidi, F., Field, T., Schanberg, S., Bauer, C., Vega Lahr, N., Garcia, R., Poirier, J., Nystrom, G., & Kuhn, C.M.(1986). Effects of tactile/kinesthetic stimulation on the clinical course and sleep/wake behavior of preterm neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 9, 91-105.  
• Forty preterm infants were placed in a control or treatment group. The treated infants averaged a 47% greater weight gain per day and spent time more awake and active during sleep/wake behavior observations. On the Brazelton scale the treated infants showed more mature orientation, motor, habituation, and range of state behaviors.  Morrow, C., Field, T., Scafidi, F., Roberts, J., Eisen, L., Larson, S., Hogan, A., & Bandstra, E. (1991). Differential effects of massage and heelstick procedures on transcutaneous oxygen tension in preterm neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 14, 397-414.  • During the heelstick procedure, transcutaneous oxygen tension declined an average of 14mmHg. When compared to tactile-kinesthetic massage, transcutaneous oxygen tension during heelstick lower than during stimulation.  

PRETERM NEWBORNS
 Field, T., Scafidi, F., & Schanberg, S. (1987). Massage of preterm newborns to improve growth and development. Pediatric Nursing, 13, 385-387.  
• Stimulation enhanced weight gain and responsiveness, and may affect later growth and development.  Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., & Diego, M. (2006). Newborns of depressed mothers who received moderate versus light pressure massage during pregnancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 29, 54-58.  
• Compared to the group of neonates whose mothers received light massage, neonates whose mothers received moderate pressure massage spent a greater percent of the observation time smiling and vocalizing, and they received better scores on the orientation, motor, excitability, and depression clusters of the Brazelton scale.  RATPUPS  Pauk, J., Kuhn, C., Field, T., & Schanberg, S. (1986). Positive effects of tactile versus kinesthetic or vestibular stimulation on neuroendocrine and ODC activity in maternally-deprived rat pups. Life Sciences, 39, 2081-2087.  
• The study demonstrates that neither kinesthetic nor vestibular stimulation effects changes associated with maternal deprivation. Results indicate that tactile interactions between rat pups and their mothers modulate pup physiology.  REVIEWS  Schanberg, S., & Field, T. (1987). Sensory deprivation stress and supplemental stimulation in the rat pup and preterm human neonate. Child Development, 58, 1431-1447.  
• The data suggest that the effects of maternal deprivation in the rat pup are regulated by a specific form of tactile stimulation. Only brush stroking of maternally deprived rat pups returned growth parameters to normal. Other forms of stimulation, including kinesthetic and vestibular stimulation, were ineffective in restoring normal functions. Other data are presented demonstrating that very small neonates given tactile-kinesthetic stimulation, gained more weight per day, and show more mature habituation, orientation, motor, and range of state behaviors on the Brazelton assessment.  Field, T. (1994). Infant Massage. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 3, 7-14.  
• Compared to preterm infants who are not massaged, massaged infants gain 47% more weight, remain awake and active a greater percentage of the observation time, better performance on the Brazelton scale, and are hospitalized on average 6 days fewer than control infants. Similar effects pertain to preterm infants prenatally exposed to cocaine and HIV. Although, these infants also show reduced stress behaviors following the study period. Depressed mothers massaging their infants and grandparent volunteers as massage therapists also suggest that both the infant and person giving the massage can reap benefits, such as fewer anxiety and stress levels. These studies also suggested that infant’s drowsiness, quiet sleep, alertness, and tracking increased, while activity and fussiness decreased following the massage.  Field, T. (2001). Massage therapy facilitates weight gain in preterm infants. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 51-54.  
• Studies from several labs have documented a 31 to 47% greater weight gain in preterm newborns receiving massage therapy (three 15-min sessions for 5–10 days) compared with standard medical treatment. Although the underlying mechanism for this relationship between massage therapy and weight gain has not yet been established, possibilities that have been explored in studies with both humans and rats include (a) increased protein synthesis, (b) increased vagal activity that releases food-absorption hormones like insulin and enhances gastric motility, and (c) decreased cortisol levels leading to increased oxytocin.  Field, T. (2010). Massage therapy facilitates weight gain in preterm infants. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 51-54.  
• In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Massage therapy has led to weight gain in preterm infants when moderate pressure massage was provided. In studies on passive movement of the limbs, preterm infants also gained significantly more weight, and their bone density also increased. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units. This may relate to the underlying mechanisms not being well understood.   SLEEP  Field, T., & Hernandez-Reif, M., (2001). Sleep problems in infants decrease following massage therapy. Early Child Development and Care, 168, 95-104.  
• Infants and toddlers with sleep onset problems were given daily massages by their parents for 15 minutes prior to bedtime for one month. Based on parent diaries the massaged versus the control children (who were read bedtime stories) showed fewer sleep delay behaviors and had a shorter latency to sleep onset by the end of the study. Forty-five minute behavior observations by an independent observer also revealed more time awake, alert and active and more positive affect in the massaged children by the end of the study.  SURVEY  Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Feijo, L., & Freedman, J. (2006). Prenatal, perinatal and neonatal supplemental stimulation: A survey of neonatal nurseries. Infant Behavior and Development, 29, 24-31.
• A recent survey was conducted on stimulation of mothers and babies during pregnancy and the neonatal period. The survey was responded to by 82 neonatology staff members from Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) at hospitals in the United States. Some forms of stimulation were extremely common including (1) skin-to-skin following birth in the delivery room (83% of hospitals); (2) containment (swaddling and surrounded by blanket rolls) in the NICU (86%); (3) music in the NICU (72%); (4) rocking in the NICU (85%); (5) kangaroo care (98%); (6) non-nutritive sucking during tubefeedings in the NICU (96%); and (7) breastfeeding in the NICU (100%). Other forms of stimulation occurred less frequently including (1) pregnancy massage (19%); (2) labor massage (30%); (3) the Doula (assistant who comforts during labor and delivery) (30%); (4) waterbeds in the NICU (23%); and (5) preterm infant massage in the NICU (38%).  


TOUCH RESEARCH

ADHD
 Hernandez-Reif, M., Field, T. & Thimas, E. (2001). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: benefits from Tai Chi. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 5, 120-123.
•Thirteen adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) participated in Tai Chi classes twice a week for 5 weeks. Teachers rated the children's behaviour on the Conners Scale during the baseline period, after the 5 week Tai Chi session period and 2 weeks later. After the 10 Tai Chi sessions the adolescents displayed less anxiety, improved conduct, less daydreaming behaviours, less inappropriate emotions, and less hyperactivity. These improved scores persisted over the 2-week follow up (no Tai Chi period).  Anxiety  Field, T., Morrow, C., Valdeon, C., Larson, S., Kuhn, C., & Schanberg, S., (1992). Massage reduces anxiety in child and adolescent psychiatric patients. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 125-131.   
•Compared with a control group who viewed relaxing videotapes, the massaged subjects were less depressed and anxious and had lower saliva cortisol levels after the massage. In addition, nighttime sleep increased for both groups over the study period and urinary cortisol and norepinephrine levels decreased, but only for depressed patients.  Platania Solazzo, A., Field, T., Blank, J., Seligman, F., Kuhn, C., Schanberg, S., & Saab, P. (1992). Relaxation therapy reduces anxiety in child and adolescent psychiatric patients. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 55, 115-120.  
•Two groups were formed for the study; the control group watched a one hour relaxing videotape, while the treatment group participated in a one hour class consisting of yoga exercise, a brief massage, and progressive muscle relaxation. Decreases were noted in both self-reported anxiety and anxious behavior and fidgeting as well as increases in positive affect in the relaxation therapy, but not the videotape group. Cortisol decreased following both relaxation therapies.  Arthritis  Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Seligman, S., Krasnegor, J., Sunshine, W., Rivas-Chacon, R. Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (1997). 

​Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis:
Benefits from massage therapy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 607-617.  
•Children with mild to moderate juvenile rheumatoid arthritis were massaged by their parents 15 minutes a day for 30 days (and a control group engaged in relaxation therapy). The children's anxiety and cortisol levels were immediately decreased by the massage, and over the 30-day period their pain decreased on self-reports, parent reports, and their physician’s assessment of pain (both the incidence and severity) and pain-limiting activities.

Asthma  Field, T., Henteleff, T, Hernandez-Reif, M., Martinez, E., Mavunda, K., Kuhn, C., & Schanberg, S. (1998). Children with asthma have improved pulmonary function after massage therapy. Journal of Pediatrics, 132, 854-858.  
•Thirty-two children with asthma were randomly assigned to receive either massage therapy or relaxation therapy. The children’s parents were taught to provide one therapy or the other for 20 minutes before bedtime each night for 30 days. The younger children who received massage therapy showed an immediate decrease in behavioral anxiety and cortisol levels after massage. Also, their attitude toward asthma and their peak air flow and all other pulmonary functions improved over the course of the study. The older children who received massage therapy reported lower anxiety after the massage. Their attitude toward asthma also improved over the study, but only one measure of pulmonary function (forced expiratory flow 25% to 75%) improved. The reason for the smaller therapeutic benefit in the older children is unknown; however, it appears that daily massage improves airway caliber and control of asthma.  

Autism
 Escalona, A., Field, T., Singer-Strunk, R., Cullen, C., & Hartshorn, K. (2001). Brief report: Improvements in the behavior of children with autism following massage therapy. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 513-516.  
•Twenty children with autism, ages 3 to 6 years, were randomly assigned to massage therapy and reading attention control groups. Parents in the massage therapy group were trained by a massage therapist to massage their children for 15 minutes prior to bedtime every night for 1 month and the parents of the attention control group read Dr. Seuss stories to their children on the same time schedule. Conners Teacher and Parent scales, classroom and playground observations, and sleep diaries were used to assess the effects of therapy on various behaviors, including hyperactivity, stereotypical and off-task behavior, and sleep problems. The children in the massage group exhibited less stereotypic behavior and showed more on-task and social relatedness behavior during play observations at school, and they experienced fewer sleep problems at home.  Field, T., Lasko, D., Mundy, P. & Henteleff, T., Kabot, S., Talpins, S. & Dowling, M. (1997). Brief report: Autistic children's attentiveness and responsivity improved after touch therapy. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 27, 333-338.  
•22 autistic preschool children who had attended a special preschool half days for 2 years were assigned to 2 groups, touch therapy and a touch control group. Touch aversion decreased in both the touch therapy and the touch control groups, off-task behavior decreased in both groups, orienting to irrelevant sounds decreased in both groups, but significantly more in the touch therapy group.  

Bulimic  Field, T., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C., Fierro, K., Henteleff, T., Mueller, C., Yando, R., & Burman, I. (1998). Bulimic adolescents benefit from massage therapy. Adolescence, 33, 555-563.  
•Twenty-four female adolescent bulimic inpatients were randomly assigned to massage therapy a standard treatment control group. The massaged patients showed immediate reductions (both self-report and behavior observation) in anxiety and depression. In addition, by the last day of the therapy, they had lower depression scores, lower cortisol levels, higher dopamine levels, and they showed improvement on several other psychological and behavioral measures.  

Cerebral Palsy
 Hernandez-Reif, M., Field, T., Largie, S., Diego, M., Manigat, N., Seoanes, M., & Bornstein, J. (2005). Cerebral palsy symptoms in children decreased following massage therapy. Early Child Development and Care, 175, 445-456.  •Twenty young children with cerebral palsy recruited from early intervention programs received 30 minutes of massage or reading twice weekly for 12 weeks. The children receiving massage therapy showed fewer physical symptoms including reduced spasticity, less rigid muscle tone overall and in the arms, and improved fine and gross motor functioning. In addition, the massage group had improved cognition, social and dressing scores on the Developmental Profile, and they showed more positive facial expressions and less limb activity during face-to-face play interactions.  

Cognitive  Hart, S., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., & Lundy, B. (1998). Preschoolers’ cognitive performance improves following massage. Early Child Development & Care, 143, 59-64.  
•Preschoolers were given WPPSI subtests, including Block Design, Animal Pegs and Mazes, before and after receiving a 15-minute massage or spending stories with an experimenter. Results revealed that Performance on the Block Design improved following massage, and accuracy was greater on Animal Pegs in the massage group, particularly in more temperamental children.  Depressed  Jones, N.A., & Field, T. (1999). Massage and music therapies attenuate frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents. Adolescence, 34, 529-534.  
•EEG asymmetry, specifically (greater relative right frontal activation,) is associated with negative affect. Depressed adults show stable patterns of this asymmetry. The present study assessed the effects of massage therapy and music therapy on frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents. Thirty adolescents with greater relative right frontal EEG activation and symptoms of depression were given either massage therapy or music therapy. EEG was recorded for three-minute periods before, during, and after therapy. Frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated during and after the massage and music sessions.  

Dermatitis  Schachner, L., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Duarte, A.M., & Krasnegor, J. (1998). Atopic dermatitis symptoms decreased in children following massage therapy. Pediatric Dermatology, 15, 390-395.  
•Young children with atopic dermatitis were treated with standard topical care and massage by their parents for 20 minutes daily for a 1 month period. A control group received standard topical care only. The children's affect and activity level significantly improved, and their parent's anxiety decreased immediately after the massage therapy sessions. Over the 1 month period, parents of massaged children reported lower anxiety levels in their children, and the children improved significantly on all clinical measures including redness, scaling, lichenification, excoriation, and pruritus. The control group only improved significantly on the scaling measure.  

Diabetes
Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., LaGreca, A., Shaw, K., Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (1997). Massage therapy lowers blood glucose levels in children with diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 10, 237-239.  
•Children with diabetes were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or relaxation therapy group. The children’s parents were taught one or the other therapy. The immediate effects of the massage therapy were decreased parental anxiety and depressed mood, depressed child anxiety, fidgeting and depressed affect. Over the 30-day period, compliance with insulin and food regulation improved and mean blood glucose levels decreased.

Down Syndrome  Hernandez-Reif, M., Field, T., Largie, S., Diego, M., Mora, D. & Bornstein, J. (2006). Children withDown Syndrome improved in motor function and muscle tone following massage therapy. Early Child Development and Care, 176, 395-410.  
•Twenty-one moderate to high functioning young children with Down syndrome receiving early intervention (physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy) were randomly assigned to also receive two 30-min massage therapy or reading sessions (control group) per week for two months. On the first and last day of the study, the children’s functioning levels were assessed using the Developmental Programming for Infants and Young Children scale, and muscle tone was assessed using a new preliminary scale (the Arms, Legs and Trunk Muscle Tone Score). Children in the massage therapy group revealed greater gains in fine and gross motor functioning and less severe limb hypotonicity when compared with the children in the reading/control group.  

HIV  Diego, M.A., Hernandez-Reif, M., Field, T., Friedman, L. & Shaw, K. (2001). HIV adolescents show improved immune function following massage therapy. International Journal of Neuroscience, 106, 35-45.  
•HIV+ adolescents recruited from a large urban university hospital's outpatient clinic were randomly assigned to receive massage therapy or progressive muscle relaxation two-times per week for 12 weeks. To assess treatment effects, participants were assessed for depression, anxiety and immune changes before and after the 12 weeks treatment period. Adolescents who received massage therapy versus those who experienced relaxation therapy reported feeling less anxious and they were less depressed, and showed enhanced immune function by the end of the 12 week study. Immune changes included increased Natural Killer cell number. In addition, the HIV disease progression markers (CD4/CD8 ratio and CD4 number) showed an increase for the massage therapy group only.  

Leukemia  Field, T., Cullen, C., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Sprinz, P., Beebe, K., Kissel, B. & Bango-Sanchez, V. (2001). Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 3, 1-5.  •Twenty children with leukemia were provided daily massage therapy by their parents and were compared to a standard treatment control group. Following a month of massage therapy, depressed mood decreased in the children's parents, and the children's white blood cell and neutrophil counts increased.  

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder  Field, T., Seligman, S., Scafidi, F. & Schanberg, S. (1996). Alleviating posttraumatic stress in children following Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 17, 37-50.  
•As compared to a video attention control group, the children who received massage therapy reported being happier and less anxious and had lower cortisol levels after therapy.  Reviews  Field, T. (1995). Massage therapy for infants and children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16, 105-111.  
•Data are reviewed on the effects of message therapy on infants and children with various medical conditions. The infants include: premature infants, cocaine-exposed infants, HIV-exposed infants, infants parented by depressed mothers, and full term infants without medical problems. The childhood conditions include: abuse (sexual and physical), asthma, autism, bulimia, burns, cancer, dermatitis, developmental delays, diabetes, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychiatric problems. Generally, the massage therapy resulted in lower anxiety and stress hormones and improved clinical course. Having grandparent volunteers and parents give the therapy enhanced their own wellness and provided a cost-effective treatment for the children.  Field, T. (1998). Touch therapy effects on development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 22, 779-797.  •In this review empirical data are presented on the use of touch therapy, specifically massage therapy for improving the clinical course of several conditions including growth and development of preterm infants, reducing pain, increasing attentiveness, diminishing depression, and enhancing immune function. Potential underlying mechanisms for the massage therapy effects are proposed for each of these conditions. The general effects appear to derive from the stimulation of pressure receptors and the ensuing increase in vagal activity and slowing physiology which in turn facilitates a more relaxed behavioural state, decreases cortisol, and increases immune function, particularly natural killer cells.  

Sleep  Field, T., Kilmer, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., & Burman, I. (1996). Preschool children’s sleep and wake behavior: Effects of massage therapy. Early Child Development and Care, 120, 39-44.  
•The massaged children as compared to children in the wait-list control group had better behavior ratings on state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation after the massage sessions on the first and last days of the study. Also, the massaged children had a shorter latency to naptime sleep by the end of the study.  

​Caesarean Section  Field, T., & Widmayer, S. (1980). Developmental follow up of infants delivered by Caesarean section and general anesthesia. Infant Behavior and Development, 3, 253-264.  
• Infants delivered by caesarean section and general anesthesia were compared with those delivered vaginally with local-regional or no anesthesia. Findings included the absence of neonatal behavior differences, and perhaps more interesting, the more optimal interaction and temperament ratings of the C-section group during follow up assessments. Results are discussed in the context of an emergency caesarean altering the mother’s perceptions of her infant.  Field, T., Dempsey, J., Ting, G., Hallock, N., Dabiri, C., & Shuman, H.H. (1982). Respiratory distress syndrome: Perinatal prediction of one year developmental outcome. Seminars in Perinatology, 6, 288-293.  
• A number of perinatal variables were entered into multivariate regression analyses to determine which variables predicted the one-year Bayley Mental and Motor scores of infants surviving the respiratory distress syndrome. A greater number of the RDS infants received low motor scores as opposed to low mental scores, suggesting that intervention efforts with this group might focus on the development of early sensorimotor skills.

Cocaine Exposed Infants  Eisen, L.,N., Field, T.,M., Bandstra, E.S., Roberts, J.P., Morrow, C.,Larson, S.K., & Steele, B. (1991). Perinatal cocaine effects on neonatal stress behavior and performance on the Brazelton scale. Pediatrics, 88, 477-480.  
• Newborns were assessed for the effects of maternal cocaine use on their performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale and on their stress behaviors during the Brazelton as tapped by the Neonatal Stress Scale. The cocaine-exposed newborns experienced more obstetric complications, had smaller head circumferences, showed more limited habituation abilities on the Brazelton Scale, and exhibited more stress behaviors than control newborns.  Cocaine Exposed Infants  Scafidi, F., Field, T., Wheeden, A., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C., Symanski, R., Zimmerman, E., & Bandstra E.S. (1996). Cocaine-exposed preterm neonates show behavioral and hormonal differences. Pediatrics, 97, 851-855.  
• A comparison between cocaine-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed preterm neonates suggested that the cocaine-exposed neonates were born to mothers who had higher parity and more obstetric complications. In addition, mothers of cocaine-exposed preterm neonates visited, touched, held, and fed their infants less frequently than mothers of nonexposed infants. The cocaine-exposed infants had smaller head circumferences at birth, spent more time in the neonatal intensive care unit, and had a greater incidence of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhages. They also had inferior Brazelton cluster scores, including lower state regulation and range-of-state scores, and greater depression. During sleep-wake behavior observations, they showed difficulty maintaining alert states and self-regulating their behavior, and they spent more time in indeterminate sleep and had decreased periods of quiet sleep and increased levels of agitated behavior, including tremulousness, mouthing, multiple limb movements, and clenched fists. Finally, higher urinary norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels and lower plasma insulin levels were noted in the cocaine-exposed preterm neonates.

Failure to Thrive Infants Goldstein, S., & Field, T. (1985). Affective behavior and weight changes among hospitalized failure to thrive infants. Infant Mental Health Journal, 6, 187-194.  
• The affective behavior and weight change of nonorganic failure-to-thrive, organic failure-to –thrive, and control infants were compared across their hospitalization. Among the failure-to –thrive infants, positive responses to stimulation at the initial assessment were related to weight loss across the hospitalization, while positive responses to the same stimulation at the middle assessment were related to weight gain. An increase in positive affect across hospitalization occurred only for the infants who gained weight. Paradoxically, the losers may have experienced hospital stimulation as less adequate than maternal stimulation, while the gainers may have experienced hospital stimulation as more adequate than home stimulation.  

Feeding Instructions  Field, T. (1977). Maternal stimulation during infant feeding. Developmental Psychology, 13, 539-540.  
• Maternal stimulation during infant feeding was compared for groups of 4-month old bottle-fed and breast-fed normal and high-risk infants. There were no differences in the amounts of maternal stimulation of the breast and bottle-fed groups. The high-risk male infants received more stimulation during sucking periods but were also observably more disorganized in their feeding than other groups, suggesting that the mother’s sensitivity cannot be assessed independently of the infant’s responsivity.  

​Heart rate Variability  Woodson, R., Field, T., & Greenberg, R. (1983). Estimating neonatal oxygen consumption from heart rate. Psychophysiology, 20, 558-561.  
• The relationship between heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption was investigated in a sample of low-risk, term neonates. Findings suggest that HR may provide a flexible, non-restrictive means of estimating neonatal oxygen consumption.  Zeskind, P.S., & Field, T. (1982). Neonatal cry thresholds and heart rate variability. Infant Behavior and Development, 51-60.  
• This study compared infants who required a single stimulus to induce crying with infants who required multiple stimulus applications on spectral and durational measures of infant crying, and measures of heart rate variability. In addition to showing a shorter cry duration and a more frequent occurrence of high pitched cry sounds, multiple stimulus infants showed a greater heart rate variance and range marked by both higher peaks and lower depths of HR activity. The findings were used to support a model of infant crying which suggests that increased thresholds and higher pitched cry sounds characteristic of the infant at–risk may be associated with processes affecting neonatal autonomic stability.  

HIV Exposed Infants  Scafidi, F., & Field, T. (1997). Brief report: HIV exposed newborns show inferior orienting and abnormal reflexes on the Brazelton Scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 105-112.  
• Infants of HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers were assessed on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Infants exposed to HIV-positive mothers were disadvantaged from birth due to their mothers having obstetric complications and to the infants having orienting problems and abnormal reflexes on the Brazelton Newborn Scale. These problems may be early precursors of the later visual-spatial delays and hypertonicity noted in these infants.  

​Low Income Infants  Hossain, Z., Field, T., Pickens, J., Malphurs, J.& del Valle, C. (1997). Fathers' care giving in low-income African-American and Hispanic-American families. Early Development and Parenting, 6, 73-82.  
• The present study assessed fathers' and mothers' relative involvement in infant care giving tasks in low-income African American and Hispanic American families. Analysis showed that involvement in childcare differed as a function of the gender of the parent. Fathers spent one half the time mothers did in care giving. However, fathers' and mothers' participation in care giving did not vary as a function of ethnic group. African American parents reportedly received more family support than Hispanic American parents. Although relationships were noted between age, income, education, length of marriage, social support, and involvement in infant care giving, these sociodemographic variables did not predict parents' participation in childcare. The results are discussed in relation to the preconceived notion that low-income, minority fathers are `uninvolved'.  

Post Term Infants  Field, T., Dabiri, C., Hallock, N., & Shuman, H. (1977). Developmental effects of prolonged pregnancy and the postmaturity syndrome. Journal of Pediatrics, 90, 836- 839.  
• The development of post term, post mature infants was compared to that of normal control infants during the first year of life. The post term, post mature infants had more prenatal complications and received lower Brazelton interaction and motor scores at birth. They scored lower on the Denver developmental scale and were rated "difficult" babies by their mothers. Their Bayley motor scores were equivalent to those of the control infants, but their mental scores were lower. Their mothers reported a higher incidence of illnesses and of feeding and sleep disturbances.  Field, T., Hallock, N., Ting, G., Dempsey, J., Dabiri, C., & Shuman, H. H. (1978). A first year follow-up of high-risk infants: formulating a cumulative risk index. Child Development, 49, 119-131.  
• Comparisons between normal term, preterm RDS, and post term post mature infants suggested that the groups differed across the first year of development. Although the post mature infants were not designated medically at risk at birth, they had experienced prenatal complications, performed poorly on the Brazelton neonatal assessments, had ‘difficult’ temperaments, were inattentive during mother-infant interactions, and received depressed Bayley mental scores. The RDS infants who were considered medically at risk due to their postnatal complications also performed poorly on the Brazelton, were rated as having difficult temperaments, were inattentive during mother-infant interactions, but received markedly lower Bayley motor than mental scores.  Field, T., Ting, G., & Shuman, H. H. (1979). The onset of rhythmic activities in normal and high risk infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 12, 97-100.  
• The onset of rhythmic activities was compared for 2 groups of high-risk infants (a preterm Respiratory Distress Syndrome and a post term post mature group) and a normal term group over their 1st year of life. Differences suggest that the onset dates for rhythmic activities are not affected by the perinatal complications of RDS or postmaturity, but are related to gestational age differences. A comparison of the 3 groups on Bayley 1st-year motor skills revealed group differences even after an adjustment for gestational age differences, suggesting that the development of motor skills, unlike the development of rhythmic activities, may have been affected by these perinatal complications.  

Preterm Infants  Field, T.M., Hallock, N.F., Dempsey, J.R., & Shuman, H.H. (1978). Mothers' assessments of term and preterm infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Reliability and predictive validity. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 9, 75 85.
• Assessments of term and preterm RDS infants were made by mothers on an adaptation of the Brazelton scale. The mothers’ assessments were not significantly different from those assessments made by trained clinicians, and both mothers and clinicians assigned less optimal ratings to preterm infants. These findings suggest that mothers’ assessments are reliable and have some predictive validity during early infancy.  Field, T., Dempsey, J., & Shuman, H. H. (1979). Bayley behavioral ratings of normal and high risk infants: Their relationship to Bayley Mental Scores. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 4, 277-283.  
• The Bayley Infant Behavior Record [IBR] was given to normal and high-risk infants at 8, 12 and 24 months. Correlations between the Primary Cognition Composite score and concurrent Bayley Mental scores were reliable at each age, and the Primary Cognition Composite score, particularly at 12 months, was an efficient predictor of 2- year Bayley Mental performance. These results suggest the value of assessing test-taking behaviors in both normal and high-risk infant groups.  Field, T., Greenberg, R., Woodson, R., Cohen, D., & Garcia, R.(1984). A descriptive study of facial expressions during Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessments. Infant Mental Health Journal, 5, 61-71.  
• The facial expressions of term and preterm neonates were recorded during the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment. Although the examiner’s face and voice were more effective than inanimate stimuli in eliciting positive expressions in term neonates, the reverse was true for preterm neonates. Thus facial expressions may provide additional information on the degree to which neonates experience stimulation as pleasant/unpleasant and on individual differences in responsiveness to physical and social stimulation.  Morrow, C., Field, T., Scafidi, F., Roberts, J., Eisen, L., Hogan, A.E., & Bandstra, E.S. (1990). Transcutaneous oxygen tension in preterm neonates during neonatal behavioral assessments and heelsticks. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 11, 312-316.
 • This study evaluated the effects of neonatal behavioral assessments and heelsticks on transcutaneous oxygen tension in preterm neonates. Observed changes during the behavioral assessments occurred in a small number of infants, primarily during the few test procedures administered to the infants outside of their isolettes. Accordingly, it is suggested that time outside the isolette and associated temperature changes may be more critical variables than the assessments per se.  Temperament  Field, T., Vega Lahr, N., Scafidi, F., & Goldstein, S.(1987). Reliability, stability, and relationships between infant and parent temperament. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 117 122.  
• Reliability, stability, and relationships between infant and parent temperament were assessed using infant adaptations of 2 childhood temperament inventories. Both scales were moderately reliable, stability was moderate for the 4- to 18 –month periods, and significant correlations were noted between mother and infant temperament ratings.  Field, T. (1989). Infancy risk factors and risk taking. Comments on Rauh's paper. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 4, 175-176.
 • The Hellgard Rauh paper: Rauh is basically suggesting that a model of risk requires the incorporation of several concepts including stress and coping and in that context personality characteristic such as vulnerability/resilience. Vulnerability certainly impacts on the infant’s ability to cope with stress. Protective factors such as a nurturing environment are also part of the equation of predicting outcomes from early risk factors.  

Other NICU and Touch Research:

•    Als, H. (l984) Manual for the Naturalistic Observation of Newborn Behavior (Preterm & Full Term). The Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.
•    Als, H., and Gibes, R. (l986) Newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program (NIDCAP®). Unpublished training guide. The Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.
•    Als, H., & Gilkerson, L. (l995) Developmentally supportive care in the neonatal intensive care unit. Zero to Three, 16 (6), 1-10.
•    Als, H. Lester, BM., Tronick, EZ., Brazelton, TB. (l982) Manual for the assessment of Preterm Intants' behavior (APIB). In: HE Fitzgerald, BM Lester, & MW. Yogman (eds) Theory and Research in Behavioral Pediatrics (vol.l), New York: Plenum Press.
•    Browne, J. V., MacLeod, A.M., Smith-Sharp, S., ( 2000) Family Infant Relationship Support Training Program (FIRST). The Children's Hospital Association, Denver, Colorado.
•    VandenBerg, K.A. (l995) Behaviorally supportive care for the extremely premature infant. Inunderson, L.P., and Kenner, C., (eds) Care of the 24-25 Week Gestational Age Infant: A Small Baby Protocol. Petaluma, CA, NICU Ink, l45-170.
•    VandenBerg, K. A. (1997) Basic Principles of DevelopmentalCare, Neonatal Network, Developmental Column, 16, (7) Petaluma, CA.
•    Hynan, M. 1996. Helping Parents Cope with a High Risk Birth: Terror, Grief, Impotence, and Anger. Presentation. Http://www.uwm.edu/-hynan/MINNAEP.html 
•    Http://www.slideshare.net/dyerk/grief-in-the-nicu-identifying-understanding-and-helping-grieving-parents-1235882 
•    Kubler-Ross E. Kessler D. On Frief and Grieving. New York, NY: Schribner. p.7.
•    Dyer K. 2005. Identifying, Understanding, and Working with Grieving Parents in the NICU, Part 1. Neonatal Network. 24 (3): 35-46.
•    Dyer K. 2005. Identifying, Understanding, and Working with Grieving Parents in the NICU, Part 2. Neonatal Network. 24 (4): 27-39.
•    Bruce CA. 2007. Helping Patients, Families, Caregivers, and Physicians, in the Grieving Process. JAOA. 107(7): 33-40.
•    Maroney D. 1994. Helping Parents Survive the Emotional Roller Coaster Ride in the Newborn Intensive Care Nursery. Journal of Perinatology. Vol 14. No. 2. http://www.premature-infant.com/articlehelping.html 

MUSIC:
•    A Child's Gift of Lullabyes, By Tanya Goodman 
•    The Rock-a-Bye Collection, By Tanya Goodman 
•    One Light, One Sun, By Raffi
 •    Rise and Shine, By Raffi
•    Night Time, Catch That Train, Family Dance, House Party, By Dan Zanes 
•    True Nature, By Leslie Lembo & Bruce Begeno 
•    Baby-o! [sound recording] by MaryLee Sunseri 
•    A smooth road to London town [sound recording] by Kathy Reid-Naiman 
•    Lullabies for sleepy eyes [sound recording] by Susie Tallman 
​•    Quiet time [sound recording] by Raffi 
•    Mother Goose melodies by MaryLee Sunseri 
•    Lullabies & lap rhymes with Sally & Erika [sound recording.]

​Books on Consciousness:
•    10 Secrets for Success and Inner Peace-Wayne Dyer
•    Ask and it is Given-Jerry Hicks
•    Changes of Mind-Jenny Wade
•    Decartes Error-Antonio Damsio
•    Hidden Minds-Frank Tallis
•    Messages From Water-Masaru Emoto
•    One Mind-Larry Dosey
•    Proof of Heaven-Eben Alexander
•    Return from Tomorrow-Dr. George Ritchie
•    Secrets of the Lost Mode of Prayer-Greg Braden
•    Strange Loops and Gestures of Creation-Joseph Chilton Pearce
•    The Developing Mind-Dr. Daniel Siegel
•    The Evolution of Consciousness-Robert Ornstein
•    The Feeling of What Happens-Antonio Damasio
•    The Holographic Universe-Michael Talbot
•    The Intention Experiment-Lynne McTaggart
•    The Spontaneous Healing of Belief-Gregg Bradden
•    The Whole Pregnancy Handbook-Dr. Joel Evans
•    Welcoming Consciousness-Wendy Anne McCarty